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GCSE Media Studies Key Terms
The Schreibmax was placed on top of the Enigma machine and was connected to the lamp panel. To install the printer, the lamp cover and light bulbs had to be removed. It improved both convenience and operational security; the printer could be installed remotely such that the signal officer operating the machine no longer had to see the decrypted plaintext. A cable placed onto the plugboard connected letters in pairs; for example, E and Q might be a steckered pair.
One of the earliest indicator procedures for the Enigma was cryptographically flawed and allowed Polish cryptanalysts to make the initial breaks into the plugboard Enigma. The procedure had the operator set his machine in accordance with the secret settings that all operators on the net shared. The settings included an initial position for the rotors (the Grundstellung), say, AOH. The operator turned his rotors until AOH was visible through the rotor windows.
The plugboard (Steckerbrett in German) permitted variable wiring that could be reconfigured by the operator (visible on the front panel of Figure 1; some of the patch cords can be seen in the lid). It was introduced on German Army versions in 1930, and was soon adopted by the Reichsmarine (German Navy).
What does ardent love mean?
pragmatic. To describe a person or a solution that takes a realistic approach, consider the adjective pragmatic. The four-year-old who wants a unicorn for her birthday isn't being very pragmatic.
The right-hand rotor stepped once with each keystroke, and other rotors stepped less frequently. By itself, a rotor performs only a very simple type of encryption, a simple substitution cipher. For example, the pin corresponding to the letter E might be wired to the contact for letter T on the opposite face, and so on. Enigma's security came from using several rotors in series (usually three or four) and the regular stepping movement of the rotors, thus implementing a polyalphabetic substitution cipher. a German-built enciphering machine developed for commercial use in the early 1920s and later adapted and appropriated by German and other Axis powers for military use through World War II.
In one example the Atlantic weather forecast, which was written in the same format each day, was crucial. Turing’s machine, which is a precursor to what we now think of as a computer, was able to rapidly speed up the rate at which intercepted messages were decoded, allowing allied forces to react accordingly within hours rather than weeks.
At that point, the operator chose his own arbitrary starting position for the message he would send. An operator might select EIN, and that became the message setting for that encryption session. The operator then typed EIN into the machine twice, this producing the encrypted indicator, for example XHTLOA. This was then transmitted, at which point the operator would turn the rotors to his message settings, EIN in this example, and then type the plaintext of the message.
For machines equipped with the extra panel, the wooden case of the Enigma was wider and could store the extra panel. Current flowed from the keyboard through the plugboard, and proceeded to the entry-rotor or Eintrittswalze. Inserting a plug disconnected the upper jack (from the keyboard) and the lower jack (to the entry-rotor) of that letter.
What is an enigmatic person?
Antonyms: answer, axiom, explanation, proposition, solution. Synonyms: conundrum, paradox, problem, puzzle, riddle.
SYNONYMS FOR enigmatic
An Enigma machine is made up of several parts including a keyboard, a lamp board, rotors, and internal electronic circuitry. Some machines, such as the ones used by the military, have additional features such as a plugboard. Like other rotor machines, the Enigma machine is a combination of mechanical and electrical subsystems. The mechanical subsystem consists of a keyboard; a set of rotating disks called rotors arranged adjacently along a spindle; one of various stepping components to turn at least one rotor with each key press, and a series of lamps, one for each letter.
Most of the key was kept constant for a set time period, typically a day. A different initial rotor position was used for each message, a concept similar to an initialisation vector in modern cryptography. Design weakness and operator sloppiness in these indicator procedures were two of the main weaknesses that made cracking Enigma possible. To implement this day-key first you would have to swap the letters A and L by connecting them on the plugboard, swap P and R by connecting them on the plugboard, and then the same with the other letter pairs listed above.
Once the Enigma machine was cracked, 211 Bombe machines were built and ran around the clock. They were stationed at different locations across Britain, in order to reduce the threat of bombings wiping out these highly complex and expensive pieces of kit.
Essentially, a one end of a cable would be plugged into the "A" slot and the other end would be plugged into the L slot. Before any further scrambling happens by the rotors, this adds a first layer of scrambling where the letters connected by the cable are encoded as each other. For example, if I were to encode the message APPLE after connecting only the "A" to the "L", this would be encoded as LPPAE.
- Two Enigma rotors showing electrical contacts, stepping ratchet (on the left) and notch (on the right-hand rotor opposite D).
- Using information that they decoded from the Germans, the Allies were able to prevent many attacks.
- The plugboard contributed more cryptographic strength than an extra rotor.
- With the help of a checking machine, the process could be repeated until the correct answer was discovered.
- Inside the body of the rotor, 26 wires connected each pin on one side to a contact on the other in a complex pattern.
Enigma G, used by the Abwehr, had four rotors, no plugboard, and multiple notches on the rotors. By 15 July 1928, the German Army (Reichswehr) had introduced their own exclusive version of the Enigma machine, the Enigma G. Ring settings (Ringstellung) – the position of each alphabet ring relative to its rotor wiring. In Model 'C', the reflector could be inserted in one of two different positions. In Model 'D', the reflector could be set in 26 possible positions, although it did not move during encryption.
What is the synonym of Labyrinth?
It was performed with the famous Turing Bombe. For a 3-rotor (Army & Luftwaffe) Enigma system, it took 20 minutes x 60 possible selections of 3 rotors out of 5. It had, however, some limitations (such as failing when there was a stepping of the middle rotor in the middle of the guessed plain text).
Most of these plug connections were, unlike the default plugs, not pair-wise. In one switch position, the Uhr did not swap letters, but simply emulated the 13 stecker wires with plugs. Some M4 Enigmas used the Schreibmax, a small printer that could print the 26 letters on a narrow paper ribbon. This eliminated the need for a second operator to read the lamps and transcribe the letters.
How did they break enigma?
Choose the Right Synonym for enigma mystery, problem, enigma, riddle, puzzle mean something which baffles or perplexes. mystery applies to what cannot be fully understood by reason or less strictly to whatever resists or defies explanation.
Despite the complexity, all the operators needed was information about the starting position, and order, of the three rotors, plus the positions of the plugs in the board. From there, decoding is as simple as typing the cyphertext back into the machine.
What is an example of an enigma?
A person who is described as an enigma is a bit of a mystery. You never know what that person is really thinking, or what his or her motives for doing something are.
Examples from the Web for enigmatic
For each key press there was rotation of at least the right hand rotor and less often the other two, resulting in a different substitution alphabet being used for every letter in the message. The cyphertext recorded by the second operator would then be transmitted, usually by radio in Morse code, to an operator of another Enigma machine. This operator would type in the cyphertext and — as long as all the settings of the deciphering machine were identical to those of the enciphering machine — for every key press the reverse substitution would occur and the plaintext message would emerge. Enigma has an electromechanical rotor mechanism that scrambles the 26 letters of the alphabet.
These Polish Bomba machines succeeded thanks to a flaw in German encryption, which double-encrypted the first three letters at the beginning of each message, allowing codebreakers to search for patterns. The Bombe machine, designed by British mathematician Alan Turing at Bletchley Park during the early stages of World War II, was crucial to cracking German communications encoded by the Enigma machine. The standard British Bombe machine was essentially 36 Enigma machines wired together, this way, the Bombe machine would simulate several Enigma machines at once. Most Enigma machines had three rotors and to represent this in the Bombe, each of the Enigma simulators in the Bombe had three drums, one for each rotor. A major flaw with the Enigma code was that a letter could never be encoded as itself.
The features above describe the components of commercial Enigma machines, but military-grade machines have additional features, such as a plugboard, which allow for even more configuration possibilities. An Enigma machine is a famous encryption machine used by the Germans during WWII to transmit coded messages. An Enigma machine allows for billions and billions of ways to encode a message, making it incredibly difficult for other nations to crack German codes during the war — for a time the code seemed unbreakable. Some historians believe that the cracking of Enigma was the single most important victory by the Allied powers during WWII.
The plug at the other end of the crosswired cable was inserted into another letter's jacks, thus switching the connections of the two letters. Internal mechanism of an Enigma machine showing the type B reflector and rotor stack. To make room for the Naval fourth rotors, the reflector was made much thinner.
Like all the best cryptography, the Enigma machine is simple to describe, but infuriating to break. In Bones season 8, episode 12 ("The Corpse in the Canopy"), Dr. Jack Hodgins uses an Enigma machine to send information to Seeley Booth at the FBI in order to prevent Christopher Pelant, a master hacker, from spying on their communications. The 2001 war comedy film All the Queen's Men featured a fictitious British plot to capture an Engima machine by infiltrating the Enigma factory with men disguised as women.
In other words, an “M” would never be encoded as an “M.” This was a huge flaw in the Enigma code because it gave codebreakers a piece of information they could use to decrypt messages. If the codebreakers could guess a word or phrase that would probably appear in the message, they could use this information to start breaking the code. Because the Germans always sent a weather report at the beginning of the message, and usually included the phrase “Heil Hitler” at the end of the message, there were phrases decrypters knew to look for. Decoders could compare a given phrase to the letters in the code, and if a letter in the phrase matched up with a letter in the code, they knew that that part of the code did not contain the phrase. The decoders could then begin cracking the code with a process of elimination approach.
It is on permanent display at the Naval Museum of Alberta inside the Military Museums of Calgary. A four-rotor Enigma machine is on display at the Military Communications and Electronics Museum at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Kingston in Kingston, Ontario. The German-made Enigma-K used by the Swiss Army had three rotors and a reflector, but no plugboard.
In Elementary season 5, episode 23 ("Scrambled"), a drug smuggling gang uses a four-rotor Enigma machine as part of their effort to encrypt their communications. The Circle, forced to settle for using an Enigma, instead, successfully cracks the code. The plot of the film U-571 (released in 2000) revolves around an attempt by American, rather than British, forces to seize an Enigma machine from a German U-boat. Neal Stephenson's novel Cryptonomicon (1999) prominently features the Enigma machine and efforts to break it, and portrays the German U-boat command under Karl Dönitz using it in apparently deliberate ignorance of its penetration. Machines like the SIGABA, NEMA, Typex and so forth, are deliberately not considered to be Enigma derivatives as their internal ciphering functions are not mathematically identical to the Enigma transform.
What is the definition of Instructable?
adjective. Expressing or characterized by warmth of feeling; passionate: an ardent lover. Displaying or characterized by strong enthusiasm or devotion; fervent: “an impassioned age, so ardent and serious in its pursuit of art” ( Walter Pater ) a. Burning; fiery.
After each button press, the rotors move and repressing that same button routes current along a different path to a different revealed letter. The board lights up to show the encrypted output, and the first of the three rotors clicks round one position – changing the output even if the second letter input is the same as the first one.