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Ethos, Pathos, and Logos: Importance in Public Speaking
Because they felt as though their intense feelings about the tragedy of 9/11 were being exploited and cheapened by the candidates, and they were intentionally being made to feel fearful. They felt as though their emotions were being manipulated to obtain votes. In this case, an overload of pathos backfired on the candidates. At the end of the show, the camera would pan out, showing the protagonist alone and suffering for the poor decisions that he or she had made. When you were a child, that sort of heavy-handed emotionalism was effective in getting a point across.
Understanding pathos is important for readers and for writers. As a reader, you want to be in tune with the author’s use of pathos, consciously evaluating the emotions the author tries to elicit. Then you can make informed decisions about the author’s motives and writing methods. As a writer, you want to be aware of proper uses of pathos, paying close attention to both your subject matter and your audience. There is no need to sound like an after-school special, unless, of course, you are writing for one.
For example, let's say that James said that 25% of the school's budget was spent on a teacher retreat whereas only 2% of the budget was allotted for student field trips. Provided that the numbers were accurate and not misconstrued, the students would likely be quite angered by these facts.
It is a strategy in which a speaker or a writer attacks the character or personality of an opponent speaker or writer, rather than criticizing the matter of his or her point of view. Such an argument, however, is generally thought to be a logical fallacy. Nevertheless, it can prove to be exceptionally successful and is fairly common in politics.
Examples and Observations
When you evaluate an appeal to ethos, you examine how successfully a speaker or writer establishes authority or credibility with his or her intended audience. You ask yourself what elements of the essay or speech would cause an audience to feel that the author is (or is not) trustworthy and credible. Ultimately, the three modes of persuasion are interconnected.
First and foremost, a speaker must convince his audience that he is someone they should believe. The speaker might not directly state his credits, but he should in some way present his authority to the audience. Some speakers have innate authority (like the President) and others have to prove it.
Logos in Political Speeches
Does he or she avoid selective use of evidence or other types of manipulation of data? Fair incorporation of credible evidence from authoritative, accessible sources builds ethos. The first and most obvious marker of ethos is the author’s background.
Generally, logos appears in literature when characters argue or attempt to convince one another that something is true. The degree to which characters use logos-driven arguments can also provide important insight into their personalities and motives. While Aristotle’s three persuasive appeals make appearances throughout the book, there is so much more to Words Like Loaded Pistols.
Authors are not usually trying to directly influence their audience in the way politicians or advertisers are. Rather, authors often show one of their characters making use of ethos. In doing so, the author gives insight into characters' perceptions of one another, their values, and their motives. When a literary character uses an ad hominem argument, this can sometimes indicate that he or she is insecure about his or her own position regarding a certain issue. While ethos appeals to an audience's instinctive respect for authority, logos appeals to the audience's sense of reason, and pathos appeals to the audience's emotions.
Logos is logic, where all the details come together and make sense. In addition, emotions are part of real life. Thus, by giving pathos expression in their works, writers bring their narratives, characters, and themes closer to real life.
Ad hominem attacks usually have the goal of swaying an audience away from an opponent's views and towards one's own by degrading the audience's perception of the opponent's character. For instance, if one politician attacks another as being "elite," the attacker may be seeking to make voters question whether the other politician is trustworthy or actually has the public's interest at heart.
You should also consider the evidence and sources used by the author. Investigate whether the writer or speaker has cited sources or provided opportunities for the audience to access further information on the issue. Does the writer provide complete and accurate information about the issue?
- The argument may be heavier in one appeal over another; however, a good argument will contain some of all three appeals.
- He may want to mention previous leadership experience or maybe ways in which he has already helped the school to establish his expertise in the subject area.
- Does he or she avoid selective use of evidence or other types of manipulation of data?
- What seems to be missing is that speakers need to show their hearts to audiences to truly connect with them.
- Because they felt as though their intense feelings about the tragedy of 9/11 were being exploited and cheapened by the candidates, and they were intentionally being made to feel fearful.
It’s the verbal equivalent of all those degrees hanging up in your doctor’s office. And once you’ve established why you are an authority on the subject, you need to build rapport. Ethos, when everything is stripped away, is about trust. Only use an emotional appeal if it truly supports the claim you are making, not as a way to distract from the real issues of debate. An argument should never use emotion to misrepresent the topic or frighten people.
Earlier, we mentioned that, if possible, you should try to share the event experience with your audience. When you do, you can increase your ethos by incorporating something from that shared experience (or someone in the audience) into your speech. Your audience sees you as “one of them”, and a silent bond forms. Depending on the event, you may have an opportunity to provide an author’s bio to complement your speech title. Make it clear to your potential audience why they should spend their time (and their money) to listen to you.
How do you write ethos in writing?
You can establish ethos—or credibility—in two basic ways: you can use or build your own credibility on a topic, or you can use credible sources, which, in turn, builds your credibility as a writer. After all, think about the way advertisers use ethos to get us to purchase products.
When James' friend Angelique conducted her survey, some of the students said they didn't really trust or relate to James as a candidate. James is lacking ethos in his persuasive approach to his campaign. James can develop ethos in his persuasive speech by delivering his speech with a formal tone.
Writers also appeal to emotions to convince audiences and readers to continue to watch a movie or read a book. If an audience is emotionally involved in the story, and if the audience is emotionally invested, they will be more likely to like what they see and continue to watch or read. Not all speakers who use logos can be blindly trusted.
Ethos refers to any element of an argument that is meant to appeal to an audience’s ethics or ethical responsibilities. Finally, consider the author’s willingness to examine the scope and depth of the issue, including arguments that may oppose the author’s position. Does the writer demonstrate familiarity with different opinions and perspectives? Does the writer speak respectfully about people who may have different opinions and perspectives?
Appeals to Ethos
What are the types of pathos?
Being ethical means conforming to accepted moral standards. Applied to the work environment, it means that an ethical person has a higher standard than just avoiding a certain behavior or practice because it is illegal. Ethics can be applied to all aspects of business, from accounting to customer service.
The first example is reference to the speaker’s credibility; the second example is an appeal to the audience’s sense of ethical responsibility.
Ethos, pathos, and logos are the foundation modes of persuasion, also known as appeals. In this lesson, you will learn about the different modes of persuasion and how to incorporate them into your speech. Ethos, Pathos, and Logos are modes of persuasion used to convince audiences.
Why Do Writers Use Logos?
What is an example of pathos?
Ethos means credibility. Pathos means empathy or emotion, and logos means logic. The study of the modes of persuasion were originally discussed by the Greek philosopher Aristotle. Let's explore the meaning of each of these concepts more in depth and how they apply to persuasive speaking.
Ethos of a speaker or a writer is created largely by the choice of words he or she chooses to convince listeners or readers. Ethos examples in TV ads are not only expressed in words. For instance, in a commercial for toothpaste, an actor puts on a white lab coat and talks about how that particular toothpaste is good for teeth. By putting on a white lab coat, an actor looks like a doctor, and thus gains credibility as people consider a doctor’s remarks to be more credible than an actor’s. In an argument, it is of utmost value for a speaker or a writer to impress upon listeners and readers the idea that is worth listening to.
When a writer uses humor in order to illustrate a point, he or she is employing pathos. Though there is logic to satirical humor (as used on The Daily Show or The Colbert Report), the main appeal of such television shows is that they make viewers laugh.
What is pathos in rhetoric?
When you evaluate an appeal to ethos, you examine how successfully a speaker or writer establishes authority or credibility with his or her intended audience. You ask yourself what elements of the essay or speech would cause an audience to feel that the author is (or is not) trustworthy and credible.