|Mkt.Cap||$ 1.52 M||Volume 24H||0.00000000MWAT|
|Market share||0%||Total Supply||700 MMWAT|
|Proof type||N/A||Open||$ 0.0030|
|Low||$ 0.0030||High||$ 0.0031|
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As the popularity of these devices increased, manufacturers began manufacturing similar high-powered pointers. Warnings have been published on the dangers of such high-powered lasers. Despite the disclaimers, such lasers are frequently sold in packaging resembling that for laser pointers.
The reduced light behind the goggles may also cause the pupils to dilate, increasing the hazard to the invisible IR light. Dual-frequency so-called YAG laser eyewear is significantly more expensive than single frequency laser eyewear, and is often not supplied with unfiltered DPSS pointer style lasers, which output 1064 nm IR laser light as well. These potentially hazardous lasers produce little or no visible beam when shone through the eyewear supplied with them, yet their IR-laser output can still be easily seen when viewed with an IR-sensitive video camera. The low-cost availability of infrared (IR) diode laser modules of up to 1000 mW (1 watt) output has created a generation of IR-pumped, frequency doubled, green, blue, and violet diode-pumped solid-state laser pointers with visible power up to 300 mW. Because the invisible IR component in the beams of these visible lasers is difficult to filter out, and also because filtering it contributes extra heat which is difficult to dissipate in a small pocket "laser pointer" package, it is often left as a beam component in cheaper high-power pointers.
Note that the beam itself is visible through Rayleigh scattering. Some green lasers operate in pulse or quasi-continuous wave (QCW) mode to reduce cooling problems and prolong battery life.
[clarify] of harmonic generation from a DPSS laser system. This "sodium" wavelength, although only 4.5 nm away from the older 593.5 nm, appears more gold in colour compared to the more amber appearance of the 593.5 nm wavelength.
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Lasers of this type may not include safety features sometimes found on laser modules sold for research purposes. These are the simplest pointers, as laser diodes are available in these wavelengths. The pointer is most common and mostly low-powered.
Although this wavelength can be obtained directly with an inexpensive laser diode, higher beam quality and narrower spectral bandwidth are achieved through DPSS versions. The apparent brightness of a spot from a laser beam depends on the optical power of the laser, the reflectivity of the surface, and the chromatic response of the human eye. For the same optical power, green laser light will seem brighter than other colors because the human eye is most sensitive at low light levels in the green region of the spectrum (wavelength 520–570 nm).
Other colors are possible too, with the 532 nm green laser being the most common alternative. Yellow-orange laser pointers, at 593.5 nm, later became available. In September 2005 handheld blue laser pointers at 473 nm became available. In early 2010 "Blu-ray" (actually violet) laser pointers at 405 nm went on sale.
Though the IR from a DPSS laser is less collimated, the typical neodymium-doped crystals in such lasers do produce a true IR laser beam. The eye will usually react to the higher-powered visible light; however, in higher power DPSS lasers the IR laser output can be significant.
Green laser pointers can be used for similar purposes as well as outdoors in daylight or for longer distances. A laser pointer or laser pen is a small handheld device with a power source (usually a battery) and a laser diode emitting a very narrow coherent low-powered laser beam of visible light, intended to be used to highlight something of interest by illuminating it with a small bright spot of colored light. Power is restricted in most jurisdictions not to exceed 5 mW.
These diode-based visible lasers do not produce IR light. Blue lasers can also be fabricated directly with InGaN semiconductors, which produce blue light without frequency doubling.
UK Health Protection Agency Information Sheet on Laser Pointers Archived 13 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Laser pointers are not illegal in Hong Kong but air navigation rules state that it is an offense to exhibit "any light" bright enough to endanger aircraft taking off or landing. Since laser pointers became readily available, they have been misused, leading to the development of laws and regulations specifically addressing use of such lasers. Their very long range makes it difficult to find the source of a laser spot. In some circumstances they make people fear they are being targeted by weapons, as they are indistinguishable from dot type laser reticles.
This is done to ensure that "friendly" and "enemy" targets are not mistaken. A friendly target may wear an IR emitting device that is only visible to those utilizing night vision (such as pilots.) To pinpoint the exact location of an enemy combatant, they would simply illuminate the target with a laser beam detectable by the attacking aircraft. This can be one of the most accurate ways of marking targets. Accurately aligned laser pointers are used as laser gunsights to aim a firearm.
- 450 nm (447 nm plus/minus 5 nm) blue laser diodes are currently available on the open market.
- For the same optical power, green laser light will seem brighter than other colors because the human eye is most sensitive at low light levels in the green region of the spectrum (wavelength 520–570 nm).
- This "sodium" wavelength, although only 4.5 nm away from the older 593.5 nm, appears more gold in colour compared to the more amber appearance of the 593.5 nm wavelength.
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- However, laser pointers have few applications beyond actual pointing in the wider entertainment industry, and many venues ban entry to those in possession of pointers as a potential hazard.
The small width of the beam and low power of typical laser pointers make the beam itself invisible in a reasonably clean atmosphere, only showing a point of light when striking an opaque surface. Some higher-powered laser pointers project a visible beam via scattering from dust particles or water droplets along the beam path. Higher-power and higher-frequency green or blue lasers may produce a beam visible even in clean air because of Rayleigh scattering from air molecules, especially when viewed in moderately-to-dimly lit conditions. The intensity of such scattering increases when these beams are viewed from angles near the beam axis. Such pointers, particularly in the green-light output range, are used as astronomical-object pointers for teaching purposes.
In rare cases a dot of light from a red laser pointer may be thought to be due to a laser gunsight. When pointed at aircraft at night, laser pointers may dazzle and distract pilots, and increasingly strict laws have been passed to ban this. RED (Restart Energy Democracy) is a blockhain powered platform backed by Restart Energy, a European energy provider with $20 million in revenues.
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The amount of energy stored in each RED MegaWatt Token will continue increasing overtime. The capacity per token is set at one MWh/token once fully charged. This idea is fascinating and revolutionary to ponder.
Such laser pointers have reportedly caused afterimages, flash blindness and glare, but not permanent damage, and are generally safe when used as intended. Irresponsible use of laser pointers is often frowned upon by members of the laser projector community who fear that their misuse may result in legislation affecting lasers designed to be placed within projectors and used within the entertainment industry.
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Infrared hazards of diode-pumped solid-state laser pointers
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Laser shows are often extravagant, using lenses, mirrors and smoke. For instance, construction companies may use high quality laser pointers to enhance the accuracy of showing specific distances, while working on large-scale projects. They proved to be useful in this type of business because of their accuracy, which made them significant time-savers. What is essentially a laser pointer may be built into an infrared thermometer to identify where it is pointing, or be part of a laser level or other apparatus. A 5 mW green laser pointer directed at a palm tree at night.
Others involved in activities where dazzling or distraction are dangerous are also a concern. If aimed at a person's eyes, laser pointers can cause temporary visual disturbances or even severe damage to vision. There are reports in the medical literature documenting permanent injury to the macula and the subsequently permanent loss of vision after laser light from laser pointer being shone to human's eyes. Laser pointer shall therefore never be directed towards human or animals' eyes, as stated on its warning label. They may also be a major annoyance in some circumstances.
The devices are brighter for the same power than 405 nm violet laser diodes, since the longer wavelength is closer to the peak sensitivity of the human eye. Mass production of laser diodes for commercial devices like laser projectors have driven down prices. Despite legislation limiting the output of laser pointers in some countries, higher-power devices are currently produced in other regions (especially China), and are frequently imported by customers who purchase them directly via Internet mail order. The legality of such transactions is not always clear; typically, the lasers are sold as research or OEM devices (which are not subject to the same power restrictions), with a disclaimer that they are not to be used as pointers. DIY videos are also often posted on Internet video sharing sites like YouTube which explain how to make a high-power laser pointer using the diode from an optical disc burner.
U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1040.10(f), Food and Drug Administration regulations for Laser Products. Note that these regulations pre-date the availability of Laser Pointers and so do not reference them by name. In September 2011, GaN diode laser modules capable of operating at 250mW (or 300mW pulse) with a heatsink were offered on eBay in the Industrial Lasers category at around US$60. Some militaries use lasers to mark targets at night for aircraft.