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class 7 science forest our lifeline
7. Forests Help the Soil Stay Put
How does cutting down trees affect us and our environment?
Gifford Pinchot: The Father of Forestry. Gifford Pinchot on October 19, 1925. Gifford Pinchot was an important figure in the American conservation movement.
So, most animals that inhabit tropical rainforests are adapted to living in the trees. You can find a wide variety of birds, snakes, bats, and monkeys in these forests. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a forest is a land with tree crown cover of more than 10 percent and area of at least 0.5 hectares. Clearcutting removes all the trees in a given area, much like a wildfire, hurricane or other natural disturbance would do. It is used most frequently in pine forests, which require full sunlight to grow, and in hardwood forests with yellow poplar, sweetgum, cherry, maple and other species that require full sunlight.
What are the benefits of social forestry?
noun [uncountable] British /ˌriːəfɒrəˈsteɪʃ(ə)n/ the process of putting new trees in the ground in an area where trees used to grow. Forests and caring for forests and trees:afforestation, arboretum, arboriculture
Feature of Management
The commission was started by Teddy Roosevelt and conducted over 200 studies on the lands of North America. For a brief period, Pinchot served as the chairman of its executive committee. Eventually, Pinchot left the world of forestry to aim for higher offices in politics, becoming the governor of Pennsylvania in 1922.
Most of the animals that inhabit these forests are adapted to cold winters. Some of the species you will find in temperate deciduous forests include hawks, red fox, cardinals, and woodpecker.
Field- or organization-specific management
Industrial revolution, population bursts, and pollution create permanent damage to the earth, and the result is global warming and climate change. In such situations,something that can help extend the life of the planet and its living organisms is the increase of natural resources and decrease of exploitation of these resources.
Forests are an important part of our state’s environment and economy. When they are well managed, forests provide clean air and water, homes for wildlife, beautiful scenery, places for recreation and more than 5,000 products we all use every day. When they are not well managed, forests are often unhealthy and unproductive because of overcrowding, disease, insects, and competition for light, water and nutrients.
He worked to promote efficiency in resource use and to cut back on waste in the forests, utilizing the whole of felled trees. Forests are large areas covered in trees and they occupy about a third of the earth’s surface. The benefits of forests to their inhabitants and to the diversity of life are endless.
Afforestation ensures trees and plants that hold the soil in these sensitive areas remain protected. The importance is immense in today’s scenario because it is mainly done for commercial purposes. In a natural forest or woodland, the trees are heterogeneous. Owing to the sensitivity to over usage and slow growths, these forests cannot be used continuously for commercial purposes like wood products. The process of planting trees in empty lands helps promote the fast propagation of specific types of trees for the wood industry.
Many creatures also find shelter from weather and predators in the low growing grasses, bushes and briar thickets that follow this type of harvest. In addition, clearcutting is an important forest management tool because it can be used to create edges – areas where two habitat types or two ages of the same habitat meet.
Operations management area of business that is concerned with the production of good quality goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. It is the management of resources, the distribution of goods and services to customers, and the analysis of queue systems. Management is the science and art of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives by coordinating and integrating all available resources efficiently and effectively. It’s amazing how many people, when asked what their objectives are, will reply with answers about what the job is.
In an era where most efforts by administrators and policymakers are on protecting the indigenous forests, afforestation is an impressive solution for curbing the over-use and destruction of natural forests. Afforestation is a more viable solution as it provides raw materials for human use without harming nature.
However, he always remained a staunch advocate for conservation and natural resource management. His legacy can now be remembered via the Pinchot Institute for Conservation, a policy organization that advocates for his ideals and promotes clean water, air, and responsible resource management. Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that benefits certain forests by reducing the amount of leaves, branches and dead trees accumulated on the forest floor that could fuel a wildfire. And the increase in available insects and seeds following a prescribed fire is good for turkeys and a variety of nongame species.
Forests provide wood, food, and medicine and contain a biological diversity as yet not fully uncovered. They also act as reservoirs (sinks) for carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere by human processes, which may be contributing towards global warming. As well as the scientific benefits of forests, they also provide a home to wildlife and fulfil our cultural and spiritual needs. With the increasing demand for wood fuels and building materials, this process helps to meet these demands without cutting down the natural forests. Deforestation can lead to the depletion of trees in water catchments and riverside zones.
- However, this method of harvest is not recommended for trees with shallow root systems because the remaining trees are more susceptible to wind damage after neighboring trees are removed.
- Barren lands are also subject to flooding when it rains, resulting in the topsoil being transported to rivers and water sources in the area.
- Pinchot also played an important role in beginning the Yale School of Forestry, encouraging his wealthy family members to donate to the school.
- Animals that eat insects, such as turkeys and quails, and those that eat annual and perennial plants, such as bears and deer, thrive in recently clearcut areas.
- This is because the southernly temperate latitudes compensate for the altitude of inland forests.
- Many communities around the world survive on vegetation and animals found in the forests.
While a clearcut removes all canopy cover and is unattractive for a short period of time, it is an effective method for creating habitat for a variety of wildlife species. Animals that eat insects, such as turkeys and quails, and those that eat annual and perennial plants, such as bears and deer, thrive in recently clearcut areas.
Forests are one of the most important natural resources on this earth. Covering the earth like a green blanket these forests not only produce innumerable material goods, but also provide several environmental services which are essential for life.
What are the main uses of forest?
definition - Best management practices (BMPs) are proactive and often voluntary practical methods or practices used during forest management to achieve goals related to water quality, silviculture, wildlife and biodiversity, aesthetics, and/or recreation.
The forest floor has limited vegetation, thanks to the dense canopy. You should expect to find trees such as cypress, cedar, pine, Douglas fir, redwood, and spruce in temperate coniferous forests.
The importance of taking care of the forests for ecological as well as economical sustainable reasons has been shown in the TV show Ax Men. The process involves different stages that require a unique set of skills prompting the need to hire different workers. Furthermore, since afforestation is the process of turning barren lands into forests, they require a huge number of laborers to perform different tasks that include soil digging, sowing seeds, watering plants, and harvesting of trees. Most of the people employed in these lands are previously unemployed and usually poor.
The air is muggy as it filters through the dense canopy cover of the trees. The light that filters through this tree cover is dim and green.
This management technique is commonly used in Longleaf, Shortleaf and Loblolly pine forests because these trees are naturally resistant to fire. In fact, the Longleaf Pine requires fire for its seeds to germinate.
The process of growing trees on an area that previously has been harvested or cleared is called reforestation. One disadvantage to seed tree harvests is that the remaining trees are at increased risk of damage from wind, lightening, insect attack and logging of nearby trees. This type harvest may also require the landowner to make future investments in thinning and competition control because of uncontrolled reseeding. One benefit to shelterwood harvests is that they provide cover and early successional food sources for wildlife. However, this method of harvest is not recommended for trees with shallow root systems because the remaining trees are more susceptible to wind damage after neighboring trees are removed.
Why is it important to manage a forest?
The Principles of Forest Management stated that forests, with their complex ecology, are essential to sustainable development economy and the maintenance of all forms of life. Forests provide wood, food, and medicine and contain a biological diversity as yet not fully uncovered.
Forests can exist from the equator to near the polar regions, but different climates have different kinds of forests. In cold climates conifers dominate, but in temperate zone and tropical climates forests are mainly made up of flowering plants. Different rainfall also makes different kinds of forest.
Protecting natural forests without providing alternative sources of tree products is very difficult and unsustainable. Besides, logging is more common in places where there are no alternative sources of tree products. In the commercial world, the demand is usually high for a specific type of trees.
If done with proper planning and at appropriate sites, it can become a commercially viable solution for many human needs without harming the balance of nature. In China, the government has earmarked a bulk amount equivalent to almost 300 billion US dollars that would be completely utilized for afforesting schemes the country is planning.
They uphold climate stability, promote biodiversity, and contribute to economic development. And they are the world’s largest storehouses of carbon after oceans. Hence, it imperative that forests are protected from deforestation and other detrimental effects of human civilization. Forests also add to the aesthetics of our environment and promote ecotourism. Most medicines and pharmaceuticals are products of plants that have been derived from forests.
Because edges provide easy access to more than one habitat, they usually have more diverse wildlife communities than large blocks of a single habitat. These type of harvests result in pulpwood size trees, which are smaller in diameter than trees that would be made into lumber.
What would happen without rainforests?
Monoculture can play to the advantages of the local climate and soil conditions. Crops that are best suited for the land can be planted so that soil and climate specificities such as winds, droughts or a short growing season, don't impact the yield as much. Again this helps maximise the efficiency of farming processes.
To combat soil erosion in Central and West China, the government has already started the process of converting farmland back to woodland. By planting trees and creating forests, many of the commercial needs of human beings are fulfilled, while not destroying what is left of the planet. Afforestation is, therefore, a practice that has been propagated by government and non-government agencies of many countries as a way to stop over-exploitation of nature. During the winter, many birds migrate to warmer climate.