Radium is the new look and function of xRadon - the original base of Project Radon. The goal of Project Radon is to deliver a variety of 100% decentralized services using the blockchain. Radium is the base blockchain, upon which all current services are built. Radium blockchian services are accessed through the Radium SmartChain. The SmartChain expands the utility of Radium far beyond that of a standard coin, with features such as Username-Address linkage and Proof-Of-Existences all 100% distributed within the blockchain. See the Radium SmartChain thread here for full list of functions and development goals.
Coin added by @chopcoin Team
|Mkt.Cap||$ 2.15 M||Volume 24H||96,560.00 RADS|
|Market share||0%||Total Supply||9 M RADS|
|Proof type||PoS||Open||$ 0.52|
|Low||$ 0.51||High||$ 0.55|
Plutonium: A History of the World's Most Dangerous Element
Radium was discovered in 1898 by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie. They managed to extract 1 mg of radium from ten tonnes of the uranium ore pitchblende (uranium oxide, U3O8), a considerable feat, given the chemically methods of separation available to them.
Through a complex process, these radioactive isotopes undergo radioactive decay, resulting in the emission of particles such as alpha or beta particles. Radioactive isotopes are used primarily either for their chemical properties or as a source of radiation. Radionuclides of similar elements can serve as radioactive tracers because they are similar chemically to the non-radioactive elements.
It exhibits luminescence, decomposes in water, and is more volatile that its fellow alkaline earth metal, barium (Ba). When put to a flame, radium displays a red carmine color.
Handling of radium has since been blamed for Marie Curie's premature death. | referencesRadium is a chemical element with the symbolRa and atomic number88.
But the application of radium that would bring it notoriety was its use in glow-in-the-dark paint. Frequently used to provide luminous readouts on clocks and watches, aircraft switches and instrument dials, the eerie blue glow of radium was seen as a harmless, practical source of night time illumination. It was only when a number of the workers who painted the luminous dials began to suffer from sores, anaemia and cancers around the mouth that it was realized that something was horribly wrong. The women workers would regularly bring their paintbrushes to a point by licking them.
What color does Radium Glow?
The year before, the Food and Drug Administration banned the deceptive packaging of radium-based products. Radium paint itself was eventually phased out and has not been used in watches since 1968.
The Atomic Number of this element is 88 and the Element Symbol is Ra. After World War II, it became possible to create man-made radioactive elements (radioisotopes) in nuclear reactors, instead of isolating radium from uranium ore.
It is reasonable to expect the title of "most radioactive" will be taken over by some new, as-yet-undiscovered element. Perhaps element 120, which scientists are working to produce, will be the new most radioactive element. The legacy of the Radium Girls lives on through the ripples that their deaths created in labor law and our scientific understanding of the effects of radioactivity.
What is the study of radiation called?
Fast Facts: Radon. Radon is a colorless, odorless, and flavorless gas at ordinary temperature and pressure. Radon is radioactive and decays into other radioactive and toxic elements. Radon occurs in nature as the decay product of uranium, radium, thorium, and other radioactive elements.
It is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals. Pure radium is silvery-white, but it readily reacts with nitrogen (rather than oxygen) on exposure to air, forming a black surface layer of radium nitride (Ra3N2). All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226, which has a half-life of 1600 years and decays into radon gas (specifically the isotope radon-222).
Today, these former applications are no longer in vogue because radium's toxicity has become known, and less dangerous isotopes are used instead in radioluminescent devices. As you might expect, the radioactive properties of radium make it dangerous for humans.
Where in the world is radium found?
Radium-223. Please visit the Radium element page for information specific to the chemical element of the periodic table.
They finally isolated radium in 1902 in its pure metal form. Radium was named for the Latin for a ray and proved to be the most radioactive natural substance ever discovered. In nature, radium is found in uranium and (to a lesser extent) thorium ores in trace amounts as small as a seventh of a gram per ton of uraninite. Radium is not necessary for living organisms, and adverse health effects are likely when it is incorporated into biochemical processes because of its radioactivity and chemical reactivity.
It's somewhat complicated, trying to determine relative radioactivity because there can be many unstable steps in the decay process before an element finally breaks into stable pieces. All of the elements from element 84 on up are extremely radioactive. It's hard to calculate how many women suffered health problems due to the ingestion of radium, but the certainly number in the thousands, according to Moore. Some of the effects would only be felt much later in life through various forms of cancer. With a half-life of 1,600 years, once the radium was inside the women's bodies, it was there for good.
There's something about Radium that is deliciously Victorian. It's not just that this radioactive element was discovered at the end of the Victorian era in 1898. There's also something about its early use as a universal restorative that has a peculiarly period feel. It was seen as a source of energy and brightness, it was included in toothpastes and quack potions - it was even rubbed into the scalp as a hair restorer. Radium is present in all uranium ores, and could be extracted as a by-product of uranium refining.
Hot Times in “Radium Hospital”: The History of Radium Therapy at MSK
"In the 1950s, during the Cold War, many agreed voluntarily to be studied by scientists, even with intrusive examinations because they had been exposed for prolonged periods of time," said Moore. The Radium Girls actually believed they were getting healthier by working with the new wonder drug -- the most expensive substance in the world at the time, costing the equivalent of $2.2 million per gram in today's money. Adding to the allure of the job, the girls were listed as 'artists' in their town directories. Since it was all so attractive, they even encouraged their sisters and friends to join them.
- Pitchblende was mined near what's now Jachymov in the Czech Republic, and after the uranium had been extracted to be used to colour pottery glazes and tint photographs, the residual slag was dumped in a nearby forest.
- Since it was all so attractive, they even encouraged their sisters and friends to join them.
- Marie Curie obtained radium from pitchblende, a material that contains uranium, after noticing that unrefined pitchblende was more radioactive than the uranium that was separated from it.
- Radium is present in tiny amounts in all uranium ores – it arises from uranium decay.
- About ten years later, these "Radium Girls" would start to die.
Radium had been used to make self-luminous paints for watches, aircraft instrument dials and other instrumentation, but has largely been replaced by cobalt-60, a less dangerous radioactive source. A mixture of radium and beryllium will emit neutrons and is used as a neutron source.
Everyone’s experience with cancer treatment is different. Before treatment, ask your health care team which side effects you may develop. Your health care team can help you prevent or treat many side effects. Preventing and treating side effects is an important part of cancer treatment.
Radium is used to produce radon, a radioactive gas used to treat some types of cancer. A single gram of radium-226 will produce 0.000l milliliters of radon a day.
An Element classified as an Alkaline Earth Metals are found in the Earth’s crust, but not in the elemental form as they are so reactive. Instead, they are widely distributed in rock structures. Nearly 75% of all the elements in the Periodic Table are classified as metals which are detailed in the List of Metals. We now know that radiation works by damaging DNA in cells. Cancer cells are less able to repair this DNA damage than normal cells and die preferentially as a result.
Do radium watches still glow?
Development. The toothpaste was slightly radioactive because it contained small amounts of thorium obtained from monazite sands. Its radioactive content was promoted as imparting health benefits, including antibacterial action and a contribution to strengthening the "defenses of teeth and gums".
Radium was isolated into its pure metal by Marie and Pierre Curie and Andre Debierne in 1902. In 1910 Madam Curie succeeded in obtaining radium itself by the electrolysis of radium chloride.
Because of the radioactive nature of radium, and the fact that Mme. Curie first isolated the radium element, the unit for radioactivity is called the curie (Ci).
What are the side effects of radium?
The most expensive natural element is francium, but it decays so quickly it can't be collected to be sold. If you could buy it, you'd pay billions of dollars for 100 grams. The most expensive natural element that is stable enough to purchase is lutetium. Atoms of synthetic elements cost millions of dollars to produce.
Radium-223 dichloride is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field of nuclear medicine as radioactive tracers in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. A radioactive tracer is a chemical compound with an attached radioactive isotope [a variant of a chemical element] that can be introduced into and tracked within the body.
Coping with side effects
She also earned two Nobel Prizes for her work towards further understanding radium, especially its radioactive nature. After winning a Nobel Prize in Physics and Chemistry, and founding the "Radium Institute" in Paris, Marie died in 1934. Radium's main practical use has been in medicine, producing radon gas from radium chloride to be used in radiotherapy for cancer. The early researchers found they received skin burns from handling the radioactive materials, and when the Curies worked with doctors, they discovered that radiation could be used to reduce or even cure tumours.
This left enough radioactive residue in their mouths to cause cell damage. Eventually over 100 of the workers would die from the effects. There are four naturally occurring isotopes of radium. The most abundant is radium-226 which has a half-life of 1600 years. They are all produced by the decay of the elements uranium and thorium.
Discovery of Radium
The E.coli bacteria were abnormally long during the experiment, something that could not be attributed to the electric current. A number of platinum compounds were being formed due to reaction of the buffer and the platinum electrode. Cisplatin was found to inhibit cell division thus causing the elongation of the bacteria and was tested in was tested in mice for anticancer properties. Cisplatin today is widely used to treat epithelial malignancies with outstanding results in the treatment of testicular cancers.