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Subspecies


University of Chicago Press. The basic body type is quadruped, and most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion; but in some, the extremities are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground, or on two legs. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale—possibly the largest animal to have ever lived. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to 211 years for the bowhead whale.

What do you mean by environment?

The species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is. For Darwin, the species problem was the question of how new species arose. Darwin was however one of the first people to question how well-defined species are, given that they constantly change.

Gender roles have varied historically, and challenges to predominant gender norms have recurred in many societies. Humans are highly social beings and tend to live in large complex social groups. More than any other creature, humans are capable of using systems of communication for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization, and as such have created complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups. Human groups range from the size of families to nations.

Specie description

The conversion of forests, grasslands and wetlands for agricultural purposes, coupled with the multiplication and growth of urban centers and the building of dams and canals, highways and railways, physically has altered ecosystems to the current alarming pace of species extinction. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999).

Specie description

Alternative approaches, such as using circumscriptional names, avoid this problem.[22][23] The theoretical difficulty with superimposing taxonomic ranks over evolutionary trees is manifested as the boundary paradox which may be illustrated by Darwinian evolutionary models. In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc. a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes.

Specie description

What is the population?

In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans.

"7 Iconic Animals Humans Are Driving to Extinction". "The supply and use of primates in the EU".

What is species and its types?

A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche.

Weidenreich concluded in 1940 that because of their anatomical similarity with modern humans it was necessary to gather all these specimens of Java and China in a single species of the genus Homo, the species Homo erectus.[174][175] Homo erectus lived from about 1.8 Ma to about 70,000 years ago — which would indicate that they were probably wiped out by the Toba catastrophe; however, nearby Homo floresiensis survived it. The early phase of Homo erectus, from 1.8 to 1.25 Ma, is considered by some to be a separate species, Homo ergaster, or as Homo erectus ergaster, a subspecies of Homo erectus. The authors argue that many of the basic human adaptations evolved in the ancient forest and woodland ecosystems of late Miocene and early Pliocene Africa. Consequently, they argue that humans may not represent evolution from a chimpanzee-like ancestor as has traditionally been supposed. This suggests many modern human adaptations represent phylogenetically deep traits and that the behavior and morphology of chimpanzees may have evolved subsequent to the split with the common ancestor they share with humans.

Specie description

Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition, ethology, evolutionary psychology, and comparative psychology as well. Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment. Recent human evolution related to agriculture includes genetic resistance to infectious disease that has appeared in human populations by crossing the species barrier from domesticated animals,[247] as well as changes in metabolism due to changes in diet, such as lactase persistence.

In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered a complex neural trait innate in a variety of domesticated and non-domesticated mammals. These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mechanisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed. However, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime.

In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Biological variation

Specie description

Ghosh, Pallab (4 March 2015). "' First human' discovered in Ethiopia". Archived from the original on 4 March 2015. Porkorny (1959) s.v. "g'hðem" pp. 414–16; "Homo." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1).

How are new species named?

Random mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation. Mutations are likely to be rare and most mutations are neutral or deleterious, but in some instances, the new alleles can be favored by natural selection. Polyploidy is an example of chromosomal mutation.

  • Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection.
  • For example, Motacilla alba alba (often abbreviated M. a. alba) is the nominotypical subspecies of the white wagtail (Motacilla alba).
  • Biology A group of closely related organisms that are very similar to each other and are usually capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
  • While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older.[154] The number of centenarians (humans of age 100 years or older) in the world was estimated by the United Nations at 210,000 in 2002.[155] Jeanne Calment is widely believed to have reached the age of 122;[156] higher ages have been claimed but are unsubstantiated.

Identical names (homonyms)

Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank.

Specie description

Biologists use gene banks to broaden the gene pool of a species, increasing the likelihood it will adapt to meet the environmental challenges that confront it. Many zoos, aquariums and botanical gardens work together to carefully maintain the genetic diversity in captive populations of endangered animals and plants, such as the giant panda, the orangutan and the rosy periwinkle.

How do you describe a species?

species. 1. Biology A group of closely related organisms that are very similar to each other and are usually capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. The species is the fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus.

Specie description

Nomenclature

Mass extinctions of the geological past were caused by catastrophic physical disasters, such as climate changes or meteorite impacts, which destroyed and disrupted global ecosystems. Today’s sixth extinction also primarily is being caused by ecosystem disturbance — but this time the destroying force is not the physical environment, but rather humankind. The human transformation of Earth’s surface threatens to be as destructive as any of the past cataclysmic physical disasters. Maynard Smith, John (1989).

Their basic unit, therefore, is the clade rather than the taxon. Similarly, among those contemporary taxonomists working with the traditional Linnean (binomial) nomenclature, few propose taxa they know to be paraphyletic.[2] An example of a well-established taxon that is not also a clade is the class Reptilia, the reptiles; birds are descendants of reptiles but are not included in the Reptilia.Birds are included in the Aves.

Specie description

The single greatest threat to global biodiversity is the human destruction of natural habitats. Since the invention of agriculture about 10,000 years ago, the human population has increased from approximately five million to the current six billion. During that time, but especially in the past several centuries, humans have radically transformed Earth.

A common criterion for recognizing two distinct populations as subspecies rather than full species is the ability of them to interbreed without a fitness penalty. In the wild, subspecies do not interbreed due to geographic isolation or sexual selection.

Specie description Specie description

First mammals

Chemistry A set of atoms, molecules, ions, or other chemical entities that possess the same distinct characteristics with respect to a chemical process or measurement. Efforts are being made around the world to collect and preserve endangered organisms’ DNA. These collections, or gene banks, might consist of frozen samples of blood or tissue or, in some cases, might consist of actual live organisms.

Modern species descriptions

Animal Signals. Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution. Thompson KV, Baker AJ, Baker AM (2010).