$ 0.044 1.08%

NEM (XEM) Rank 74

Market Cap $393.65 M
Volume 24H 17799930 XEM
Open 24H $0.043
Low/High $0.043 - $0.044
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NEM is a peer-to-peer crypto platform. It is written in Java and JavaScript with 100% original source code. NEM has a stated goal of a wide distribution model and has introduced new features in blockchain technology in its proof-of-importance (POI) algorithm. NEM also features an integrated P2P secure and encrypted messaging system, multisignature accounts and an Eigentrust++ reputation system.

NEM has gone through extensive open alpha testing starting June 25, 2014, followed by lengthy and comprehensive beta testing starting on October 20, 2014. NEM finally launched on May 31, 2015.

Mkt.Cap $ 393.65 M Volume 24H 17.8 M XEM
Market share 0.08% Total Supply 2.15 B XEM
Proof type PoI Open $ 0.04
Low $ 0.04 High $ 0.04
Date Price Volume

Wholesale Energy


For example, updating outmoded grid systems to make it easier for customers to sell back power to their power providers could yield fairer rates for customers. Wholesale energy is a term referring to the bulk purchase and sale of energy products – primarily electricity, but also steam and natural gas – in the wholesale market by energy producers and energy retailers. Other participants in the wholesale energy market include financial intermediaries, energy traders and large consumers.

NEM description

Approximately 40% of NEM generation is consumed in New South Wales, while Victoria and Queensland consume approximately 25% each. The NEM needs to be modernised to accommodate and respond to changes in electricity generation, emerging technologies, such as batteries, and shifting consumer preferences. The COAG Energy Council is the key decision maker with policy and governance responsibility.

Where does Australia get its power?

Energy fuels your body's internal functions, repairs, builds and maintains cells and body tissues, and supports the external activities that enable you to interact with the physical world. Water, your body's most important nutrient, helps facilitate the chemical reactions that produce energy from food.

Australian Government Renewable Energy Policies and Programs 2 pages. Between 2008 and 2012 most states and territories in Australia implemented various feed-in tariff arrangements to promote uptake of renewable electricity, primarily in the form of rooftop solar PV systems.

NEM description

Coal-fired plants constituted a majority of generating capacity which in was 29.4 gigawatts (39,400,000 hp). In , a total of 143.2 terawatt-hours (516 PJ) of electricity was produced from black coal and 56.9 terawatt-hours (205 PJ) from brown coal. Depending on the cost of coal at the power station, the long run marginal cost of coal-based electricity at power stations in eastern Australia is between 7 and 8 cents per kWh, which is around $79 per MWh. The spot price is published by the pricing manager for each point of connection on the national grid.

The purchase and sale of electricity to resellers (entities that purchase goods or services with the intention to resell them to someone else) is done in the wholesale market, while the purchase and sale of electricity to consumers is done in the retail market. Capacity is a market service that ensures that the bulk power system has adequate resources to meet both existing and future demand for electricity. Several other wholesale electricity products are transacted through wholesale markets. These products ensure the reliability of the power system, meaning that the lights stay on in both the short- and long-term. The wholesale electricity price in any hour reflects the cost of generating electricity and delivering it over the high-voltage transmission system, and fluctuates depending on the system conditions.

NEM description

Energy systems

NEM description

Australia's retail energy markets have a multitude of private players but the big three are AGL Energy, Origin Energy and EnergyAustralia, which dominate southern and eastern Australia. Generally, electricity retail reform follows from electricity wholesale reform.

NEM description

89.2% think that a minimum 25% of electricity should be generated from renewable energy sources. an integrated policy framework for managing the social, economic and environment challenges faced by the Territory in relation to energy production and use, was released on 28 September 2011.

Image courtesy of Redpenblue.Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) witnessed a 1.4% year-on-year revenue growth to $53.5bn in 2018. The company’s power sales volume increased to 530TWh, compared with 507TWh in 2017. Its revenues, excluding gas sales, was estimated at $48.8bn, based on the average gas price in Europe during the year. The Power and Gas segment, which provides products and solutions for the operation of fossil fuel and renewable power plants, witnessed a 14% decrease, while the total orders in this segment increased by 14%.

If a resource submits a successful bid and will therefore be contributing its generation to meet demand, it is said to “clear” the market. The cheapest resource will “clear” the market first, followed by the next cheapest option and so forth until demand is met. When supply matches demand, the market is “cleared,” and the price of the last resource to offer in (plus other market operation charges) becomes the wholesale price of power. The wholesale market begins with generators, which, after securing the necessary approval, connect to the grid and generate electricity.

The World Bank was active in introducing a variety of hybrid markets in other Latin American nations, including Peru, Brazil, and Colombia, during the 1990s, with limited success. In Australia, primary sources of energy, such as the sun and wind, are increasingly being used to produce electricity. But, when Australians boiled the kettle to make tea this morning, approximately 90% of the electricity used was generated at a power station by burning coal or gas. AEMO manages electricity and gas systems and markets across Australia, helping to ensure Australians have access to affordable, secure and reliable energy. Financial markets sit alongside the wholesale market and involve retailers and generators entering into contracts to buy and sell electricity at an agreed price.

NEM description

They can choose from their local utility or a number of competitive retailers to find the service that best fits their needs. These resellers (retail electricity providers) purchase electricity though wholesale electricity markets before they resell it to consumers (and, if they are a regulated utility, resell electricity at retail rates set by state regulators).

NEM description

In turn, suppliers and utilities provide electricity to retail consumers based on the retail market structures and requirements of the six New England states. Utilities charge retail consumers for power supply through their monthly bills; these rates are approved by the state through their public utility commissions. Notwithstanding the favorable light in which market solutions are viewed conceptually, the "missing money" problem has to date proved intractable. If electricity prices were to move to the levels needed to incentivize new merchant (i.e., market-based) transmission and generation, the costs to consumers would be politically difficult. Competitive retail needs open access to distribution and transmission wires.

Australian Capital Territory

NEM description
  • The government has also tasked the ACCC to continue to monitor prices, profits and margins in the supply of electricity in the NEM.
  • Oil is converted into many products, the most used of which is gasoline.
  • The relationship between wholesale market costs and retail rates varies according to state retail procurement policies.
  • Hydrogen is a tremendous source of energy and can be used as a source of fuel to power ships, vehicles, homes, industries and rockets.
  • It supplies 22% of state's electricity and 8% of the National Electricity Market.

In its simplest terms, “energy trading and marketing” is the buying, selling and moving of bulk energy (electricity and natural gas) from where it is produced to where it is needed. When most people talk about the different sources of energy they list natural gas, coal and oil as the options – these are all considered to be just one source of energy from fossil fuels.

Wholesale energy markets developed following the deregulation and restructuring of utilities and electricity markets around the world in the 1990s. As a participant in these energy markets, Powerex buys and sells physical electricity and natural gas at market-based rates with a wide variety of energy suppliers and buyers across North America. We also hold transmission and gas transportation space to get the energy from where it is produced to our customers.

Retail markets have several different customer classes, such as industrial and commercial, and market pricing for these consumers may be very different from residential customer pricing. Wholesale electricity costs are paid for by market participants that purchase electricity from the wholesale market for either their own use, or because they are a supplier to retail consumers.

In gas, it delivers strategic planning advice and forecasting to guide long-term investment and resource management. While the Commonwealth has responsibility for the AER, its governance, functions, powers and duties are established under agreement of the Energy Council and described in the National Energy Laws. The Energy Council seeks to ensure the safe, prudent and competitive development of the nation's mineral and energy resources and markets to optimise long-term economic, social and environmental benefits to the community. The NEM governance structure was designed to deliver effective competition, to provide clear accountabilities and to support investment certainty in the energy sector by separating decisions on government policy, energy regulation and energy system operation.

Energy around Us

NEM description

From all offers submitted, AEMO’s systems determine the generators required to produce electricity based on the principle of meeting prevailing demand in the most cost-efficient way (see also Economic dispatch)[citation needed]. AEMO then dispatches these generators into production by sending automatic generation control (AGC) target signals to each generating unit[citation needed].

NEM description

Wholesale vs. Retail Electricity Costs

Which energy companies are Australian owned?

Wholesale energy is a term referring to the bulk purchase and sale of energy products – primarily electricity, but also steam and natural gas – in the wholesale market by energy producers and energy retailers.

The structure of these contracts varies by regional market due to different conventions and market structures. However, the two simplest and most common forms are simple fixed price forward contracts for physical delivery and contracts for differences where the parties agree a strike price for defined time periods. In the case of a contract for difference, if a resulting wholesale price index (as referenced in the contract) in any time period is higher than the "strike" price, the generator will refund the difference between the "strike" price and the actual price for that period. Similarly a retailer will refund the difference to the generator when the actual price is less than the "strike price".

How does the Australian power grid work?

(The NEM operates in Eastern Standard Time (UTC + 10 hours) and does not shift with daylight savings. Hence for clarity it is known as “NEM time”) Supply. Data for most of the fuel types is supplied by the AEMO East and is of 5 minute cadence.

The policy is a continued commitment to maintain affordable and reliable electricity and gas supply to Canberra. The policy also establishes the key objective of achieving a more sustainable energy supply as the Territory moves to carbon neutrality by 2060. The subsidies for Oil-Diesel fuel rebate program are worth about $2 billion, which are much more than the grants devoted to renewable energy. Whilst renewable energy is out of scope at this stage, an alternative diesel–renewable hybrid system is highly recommended.

After electricity is bought by resell or “supply” entities in the wholesale market, it can be sold to end-users in the retail market. As an illustration, an end user in a home may pay a local electric utility company for the electricity that it uses each month. The purchase and sale of electricity in this instance is happening in the retail market.

Many states offer tax incentives to homeowners who take steps to make their homes more sustainable and energy-efficient. These are early steps that allow retail customers to participate in the wholesale energy market. The long term aim is a more efficient and lower cost model that benefits consumers and producers alike. Wholesale energy prices are set by the basic market forces of supply and demand. In North America, the price of energy is typically higher during the cold winter months, with an increased need for heating, and again during the warmer summer months when the use of air conditioning increases in warmer climates.

NEM description

In most systems the algorithm used is a "DC" model rather than an "AC" model, so constraints and redispatch resulting from thermal limits are identified/predicted, but constraints and redispatch resulting from reactive power deficiencies are not. The prices in the real-time market are determined by the LMP algorithm described above, balancing supply from available units. This process is carried out for each 5-minute, half-hour or hour (depending on the market) interval at each node on the transmission grid. The hypothetical redispatch calculation that determines the LMP must respect security constraints and the redispatch calculation must leave sufficient margin to maintain system stability in the event of an unplanned outage anywhere on the system. This results in a spot market with "bid-based, security-constrained, economic dispatch with nodal prices".

8. Biomass Energy

How is electricity bought and sold?

Power plants generate electricity and sell it into the energy market. “Load servers” or “suppliers” buy the electricity wholesale in the marketplace and supply it to retail consumers. This is the electricity that you buy from your local utility or independent supplier and use at your home or business.

The prices established for the following wholesale market products and services together make up the overall market-based cost of wholesale electricity. The transmission link which transports renewable energy from the Mt Mercer wind farm to the Victorian grid — Transmission Operations (Australia) Pty Ltd Victoria — is partly owned by Cheung Kong Infrastructure. Power generators, which produce energy to sell to the wholesale electricity market.

What is retail electricity supplier?

Independent System Operator (ISO) A neutral, independent, and (typically non-profit) organization with no financial interest in generating facilities that administers the operation and use of the transmission system.

Four companies in the Australian NEM commonly described as gentailers are EnergyAustralia, AGL Energy, Origin Energy and Snowy Hydro (Lumo and Red Energy being retailer brands). Additionally, ERM Power is a generator as well as small business retailer. In Victoria, in June 2012 AGL Energy acquired Loy Yang A Power Station and the Loy Yang coal mine.[9] Loy Yang A has four generating units with a combined capacity of 2,200 MW (3,000,000 hp). Loy Yang B has two units with a capacity of 1,050 MW (1,410,000 hp) and is Victoria's newest and most efficient brown coal-fired power station. It is jointly owned by Engie (formerly GDF Suez Australia), which holds a 70% stake, and Mitsui & Co Ltd with 30%.

2) The second major grid is the South-West Interconnected System (SWIS) that supports Wholessale Electricity Market (WEM) which supplies the cities of Perth and Freemantle, and surrounding areas of south-western WA. The transport of electricity from generators to consumers is facilitated through a ‘pool’, or spot market, where the output from all generators is aggregated and scheduled at five-minute intervals to meet demand. Much of the terminology used in the National Electricity Market is derived from the National Electricity Law (NEL)[20] and National Electricity Rules (NER). In addition to physical spot trading through the NEM, there is a separate financial trading market for electricity[citation needed].